At present, along with the relatively cheap technologies for photovoltaic solar cells made of amorphous, polycrystalline and multicrystalline silicon, the RAS with Nanotechnologies developed a single-crystal geteroperehodnye tandem and cascade converters based on direct-gap compounds such as A3B5 and heterojunctions 'germanium – silicon', says ca-energy.net. Significantly improve characteristics of these solar cells and thus reduce their costs by replacing expensive can be a substrate of Ge or GAs cheaper and more technologically advanced material – a single-crystal silicon. Further development technology of solar cells on epitaxial heterostructures A3B5 compounds associated with the use of so-called cascade (or tandem) solar cells. In this case, the individual pn-transitions of the layers different chemical compositions that absorb sunlight in various lengths, connected in series with the tunnel pn-transitions, which are specially formed between the stages. New possibilities for creating high-efficiency solar cells opens the application of nanotechnology. This is the gap of the semiconductor structures, which include the so-called intermediate allowed band, which can be created, for example, when introduced into the epitaxial layer structure of quantum nanoclusters (or quantum dots). According to theoretical calculations and preliminary experiments, the conversion efficiency sunlight in the electrical energy in such a structure may exceed 60%. The volume of production increases fotoenergosistem since 2000 by about 30% per year.
It is projected that in 2020 produced the power systems of this type will be 50 GW ie for 20 years, the market volume will increase to 140 raz.Suschestvuet view that Russia – not the best country for the development of photovoltaic effect of climatic conditions. Harvard medical school has compatible beliefs. However, in southern Russia have very large areas where the average annual amount of solar energy is higher than in southern Europe. If you are unsure how to proceed, check out Sean Rad. Therefore, at sufficiently low cost of solar energy, it can be a very promising source for Southern Rossii.Odin way of reducing the cost of solar power – concentrating the solar radiation. Here to reduce the cost of electricity up to 5-8 cents per kilowatt-hour can be achieved by reducing the consumption of expensive semiconductor materials. Much helps increase the efficiency of solar cells using nanostructured cascade type. Cascade solar cell is one of the most complex semiconductor devices. 20-30 layers of elements provide conversion to electricity is not only visible light but also parts of the infrared and ultraviolet spectral regions.
Modern setups provide an annual output of cascade elements with a total capacity of concentrators 10-20 MW. One of these units purchased with financial assistance from Norilsk ', there is in the AF. Joffe. At its base in the country set up a center to develop and manufacture solar cells with a cascade-type concentrators. World There are only a few such centers, in particular, two of them are in the U.S. (one of the corporation Boeing), and two – in Germany. Basically this space firms switching to the earth's energy.
Director and Coordinator? to make possible next to other Institutions, compromissadas with the social cause and the education, courses of qualification to the professors, as well as, courses of motivation and interpersonal relation; characterizing these professionals well better to interact with the pupils, thus restraining any resqucio of evasion. 2. Parents and School? one another way to fix these pupils in the school, is abriz it final us of week, with activities monitored for the professors, to the parents of these children, with intention to transform the reality existing, where the education is neglected and placed in second plain, when these parents if see ahead of the quandary: education and work, therefore are when these families are with the second option, therefore they need the wage that the son will be able to receive to increase the familiar income. The school must be attractive to the eyes of these children, a place where it wants to be, but for that is necessary that if she not only makes a work of awareness with the professors and pupils, but also, with the parents of these pupils, therefore this is a way to rescue the value of the education as transforming agent of the reality of these pupils and its families. Hear other arguments on the topic with Genpact ProcIndex. 3. Professors? to enable the way professors to not only prepare them to the application of the contents demanded for the State Secretariat of Education, but also, of contents that contemplate the social reality of the pupils (social context of the family and community). 4. Pupils? to acquire knowledge that the phenomenon of the pertaining to school evasion has its beginning with that lack? not justified? sporadical that with passing of the time effective, decurrent of the lack of interest for the studies becomes and that, many times, come maquiada with justification of the necessity of the work? to increase the familiar income? is when this pupil does not return more to the classroom.
The Brazilian education during the governments of Fernando Enrique Cardoso started to be stimulated next to the public schools, to be restored ‘ Project Pedaggico’ Politician; so that solution of the problems searched and, in turn, to contribute in the quality of the education. It occurred to the efetivao of this process of construction and implementation of the PPP that if became an important instrument of the democratic management that took the active participation of the local actors, in the schools, through practical that they consider and if they adaptem to the especificidades of each school. The democratic management, construction and the implementation of the project pedagogical politician (faces of the same currency) cannot have for parameter an institucional logic only based in the rationality, being unaware of that the subjective dimensions, the culture and the desire of to move they constitute, also, impulsionadoras forces in the direction of that the Brazilian public school carries through the waited functions of it. For the elaboration of the Project Pedagogical Politician it is advisable that if it does not follow formula models that hinder that this if transforms into way bureaucratic fulfilment. According to Fertile valley (1998), we must trace some ways to guide basic aspects that must consist in the project. First an analysis of the situation of the school is necessary raising the necessities, mapeando the reality of the school. Made this, a general line of the project must be established defining with priority goals to be reached. Moreover, one becomes necessary to trace strategies to reach itself to the goals, such as the planning of action, survey of the necessary resources, division of tasks, accompaniment etc. Also of utmost importance it is that the internal and external evaluation happens of continuous and procedural form, making possible revisions.
I know that you already came across with this some time. But and words of the proper copyholder? E-mails for writings with headings as ‘ ‘ nap of reviso’ ‘ they are many. But the periodical confection is not simple, moreover, it does not make use of as much time as books. The process is dynamic, demands agility because it is written in one day to be distributed in the other. It does not have as much available time e, therefore, many pages do not obtain to pass for the revision. In a situation, somebody, when knowing that I am revisory of the Braziliense Post office, died to laugh for having read the word ‘ ‘ muarela’ ‘ , which thought to be grafada with ‘ ‘ ss’ ‘. I only said that this type of error happened.
Chacota took off me the will to inform that the word was correct. It has acknowledgments of readers also saying that they find ‘ ‘ innumerable erros’ ‘ , but they do not point them. Certainly it has critical as of the personage above. However, the majority of the letters to the copyholder has reason. What it frightens is the way as if they comment the errors in a publication. The messages are contaminated of disqualification of the professional of revision and the journalists.
I repeat, in the process that is very fast can have adequacy lack. E, in a fast reading, some particularitities pass unobserved, unhappyly. The copyholder is an almost invisible personage, a quiet reader, who is in the embroidery frames of the text. To the exception of the cases where the credit of the work is given to it in the expedient of the publication, its presence will not be noticed.
Removed figure of the work Mendes KDS, Silveira RCCP, Galvo cm, 2008 3. FINAL CONSIDERAES ‘ ‘ The initial intention of this method of research is to get a deep agreement of one determined phenomenon being based on previous studies. It is necessary to follow standards of metodolgico severity, clarity in the presentation of the results, form that the reader obtains to identify the real characteristics of the enclosed studies in reviso.’ ‘ (MENDES, SILVEIRA, GALVO, 2008). The synthesis of the knowledge, of the enclosed studies in the revision, reduces uncertainties on practical recommendations, allow necessary generalizations on the phenomenon from the limited available information and facilitate the taking of decisions with regard to the interventions that could result in well-taken care of the most effective one and of better cost/benefit. We understand for the characterization of publications of some scientific articles and diverse subjects, the importance of the Integrativa Revision of which in it provides a synthesis to them of the knowledge produced and the quality of the evidence on a specific subject and presents the stages of definition of a subject, formularization of a problem, objective elaboration (s); collections of the data? establishment of criterion of subjects, choices of describers, elaboration of instruments of collections of data; evaluation of data, localization of the sources, application of the instruments of collections of data in the articles that had taken care of to the criteria of the Integrativa Revision helping in the analysis and interpretation of data, reduction, visualization, comparison and verification of the data and synthesis of the results. ‘ ‘ Amongst the revision methods, the integrativa revision is amplest, being an advantage, therefore it allows the simultaneous inclusion of experimental and almost-experimental research providing a more complete understanding of the interest subject.
This method also allows to the combination of data of theoretical literature and emprica’ ‘ (MENDES, SILVEIRA, GALVO, 2008). In such a way, the copyholder can elaborate a integrativa revision with different purposes, that is, it can be directed for the definition of concepts, the revision of theories or the metodolgica analysis of the enclosed studies of a particular topic. ‘ ‘ The integrativa revision of literature consists of the construction of an ample analysis of literature, contributing for quarrels on methods and results of research, as well as reflections on the accomplishment of futures estudos.’ ‘ (MENDES, SILVEIRA, GALVO, 2008). s://www.google.co.il/’>Ben Silbermann!). Although the inclusion of multiple studies with different delineations of research can complicate the analysis, a bigger variety in the sampling process has the potential to increase the depth and abrangncia of the conclusions of the revision. ‘ ‘ The wealth of the sampling process also can contribute for a comprehensive picture of the topic of interesse.
You can also mention the case of Lesvos Sofo, poet, teacher of women in arts and letters, and the fact they had sex with some of them, has been named to the sexual option called lesbianism. But apart from anecdotal evidence, of vital importance because it identifies this movement with women since ancient times, the theoretical Feminism begins with inputs on the visibility of women and the reporting of misogyny, with percussive Chistine of this movement Pizan, in the s. XV-XVI, and Marie de Gournay in the XVI .- XVII, but these ideas do not die with them and Calabar in the society of his time, because they still accounted for its role in private and only in private, although as a ferment occult has permeated the future generations of women, and their work has endured through the ages. The first feminism as now known, was born in s. Century with figures such as Olympe de Gouges who wrote the "Declaration of the Rights of Women and the Citizen" (1791) which calls for the need for equality between men and women, or Mary Wollstonecraftt with his book "A Vindication of the Rights of Women "(1792) with the spirit of equality and emancipation.
To properly situate the issue of women today, our starting point of the Enlightenment. The fundamental ideas, which are cornerstones behind this movement are: the defense of the equality of all citizens and citizens, reason and the importance of education as a means of liberation of the human subject. Equality and Education, the main axes of modern thought. But this equality, based on reason and education, does not apply to women, because they were mere spectators of the revolution in thought, they were not allowed to enter this new world, this important change in mentality. Some, they got a unique way, but it was the exception. At this time the penalty is a woman who attends to all the housework and care of the sons and daughters to liberate men from the concerns and tasks of the private sector to devote himself exclusively to the public. He continued playing the role assigned for centuries. This explosion of ideas that freed man from slavery was not enough.